Friday, November 17, 2017

poligami kena pergi mahkamah


Santai2 sekali sekala. Pagi tadi Bib pergi teman seorang ahli keluarga ke Mahkamah Syariah. Tersebutlah alkisah kes yang disebut sebelum itu adalah Tuntutan Poligami. gulp! Terus bib pay attention sebab macam rasa nak dengar.
Si penuntut (plaintiff) pun selesai baca nama dan ic dan sedikit info segala bagai, kemudian tiba masa soal jawab dan terjadilah adegen :
Yang Arif: awak mari dengan siapa?
Plaintiff: bersama bakal isteri , dan 2 saksi.
Yang Arif: jadinya apa reaksi Isteri pertama?
Plaintiff: saya beritahu doh, MAROHHH lah dia.
.........
Dan saya dibelakang, ketawaaaa terbahak2 🤣🤣🤣... hihihi.Kelakar melihat situasi yang ada di depan mata. Antara realiti dan sensitiviti kaum lelaki dalam mendepani isu ini. Semestinya pihak lelaki dalam keadaan teruju dengan bukti yang jelas pada akhirnya pakcik itu tersenyum lebar kerana permohonan dia diterima... 😶 oke pakcik okeyyyy #tamatcerita.

KEINGINAN DAN KEMAMPUAN 

So, anyone nak poligami kene pergi ke mahkamah, rujuk pada hakim. setelah mendapat kebenaran baru boleh pergi ke step yang seterusnya. Bagi saya ini ilmu dan etika dalam menilai seseorang itu mampu atau tidak untuk berhadapan dengan situasi yang akan datang. Umumnya dapat dilihat keinginan dan kemampuan itu bukan berada di taraf yang sama. 2 aspek utama ini perlu dititikberatkan dalam isu poligami. Bak kata pepatah melayu, nilai periuk nasi sendiri. 

Keinginan yang tinggi mendorang seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu sehingga usaha daya yang mungkin untuk merealisasikan apa yang diingini. Kajian menunjukkan semakin tinggi keinginan seseorang, semakin besar daya usaha. Daya usaha mendorong setiap apa yang dingini itu akhirnya berjaya. Dalam situasi poligami, keinginan mestilah seiring dengan ilmu pengetahuan yang luas. 

Mempunyai kuasa dan memberi perhatian penuh dalam memahami setiap risiko termasuk emosi diri sendiri serta kemampuan. Kemampuan yang  diertikan dalam menyelesaikan masalah kewangan terutamanya. Rata-rata sekiranya bijak mengendali isu kewangan mendapat green light yang mudah. Jadi, ukurlah baju dibadan sendiri. 

Akhir sekali, isu hangat isu sensitif ini tidak pernah hilang menghantui kaum wanita. sejujurnya saya mempunyai ahli keluarga yang berhadapan dengan situasi ini. keterbukaan dan penerimaan. Selebihnya matang dalam menghadapi segalanya sebab semua ada pendapat, pengalaman, isi hati, jalan cerita yang unik yang tersendiri. 

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

MRT malaysia, pengukur kemajuan negara

MRT yang merupakan pelengkap pengangkutan negara telah selamat menyelesaikan project pertama yang menghubungkan laluan Sungai Buluh ke Kajang. Bulan Julai 2017 menyaksikan kemajuan ini dioperasi dengan canggih dan mendapat sambutan baik daripada rakyat dan seleruhnya. 
Bagi ku, ini adalah Kali ke2 menaiki  MRT, kali ni naik sebelah petang yang sungguh cantik sebab dapat tengok permandangan dari  sudut yang atas. Kalau ada 3 perkataan yang sesuai dikatakan tengtangnya untuk diterjemahkan semestinya  : 
MANFAAT  - SOFISTIKATED - BERISIKO. 

1. MANFAAT . Kami pergi ke KL menaiki KTM Kajang, dan pulang menaiki MRT, sudah tentu ketaranya perbandingan operasi menjadikan kemudahan MRT lebih bermanfaat daripada setiap sudut termasuk , masa, kemudahan, kebersihan, kekerapan train bergerak dan lain2.

2. SOFISTIKATED - Sudut positif untuk negara menuju  ke arah "era maju dan canggih" dan terbukti sedikit demi sedikit berkembang dengan penat sekali. Kan baru balik Korea, cewahhhh fefelling lahhh hebat dan setanding dengan negara maju. (Throwback sikittt). Salah satu ciri-ciri negara maju dan berkembang adalah  usaha mengurangkan kereta, dan meninggkatkan penggunaan public transport. Well, malaysia dah bergerak ke Arah tu contohnya : semakin ramai menggunakan  grab car dan laluan train semakin meninggkat. 

3. BERISIKO - Sememangnya semua indah dan cukup memuaskan. Namun daripada sudut ekonominya, ini semua adalah hutang - hutang negara yang lama tempoh kreditnya. Macam kad kredit, kalau dah banyak dan over belanja siap haribulan boleh muflis. Namun begitu saya sebagai rakyat marhaen sentiasa mendoakan unjuran pertumbuhan economi meningkat seadanya dan menyokong dengan sebaiknya. Insyaallah Cewahhh kbye.

Perjalanan harini diakhiri dengan pemandangan sunset di Kota KL 🌆 tq Liza ajak akak jalan2 hihi.


Monday, October 2, 2017

Trip ke Banda Aceh dan Misi Sukarelawan UNISZA 2017

Tepat sebulan yang lalu, trip ke Banda Aceh Indonesia kami selamat dan berjaya dilaksanakan. Penghargaan kepada Kelab Intrade Unisza kerana bertungkus lumus menyiapkan dari mula proses kertas kerja misi ini sehingga akhirnya kejayaan pulang ke Malaysia dengan hati yang sangat gembira sesudah selesai menyelesaikan misi pada berharga ini. 

Seramai 22 orang peserta dalam kalangan pelajar Diploma International Trade UNISZA dan 5 daripada pelajar kos berlainan berserta 4 orang pensyarah pengiring menyertai misi kami selama 6 hari 5 malam ini. Secara personal, saya amat berbangga dengan pencapaian mereka dalam merangka program misi antarabangsa sebegini rupa yang tuntasnya memberi impak secara zahir dan batin kepada kami ahli rombongan khususnya. 

Sesampai kami di Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Sultan Iskandar Muda, pada pagi 24 Ogos 2017 dengan gembira dan teruja kami diizinkan menjejakkan kaki ke bumi yang pernah diuji dengan dahsyatnya peristiwa  Thunami yang akhirnya kini telah membuka banyak pintu rezeki dan hikmah.

Bumi Aceh sangat indah dengan rakyat yang sopan dan baik budi perkertinya. Meskipun bandar yang baru membangun setelah kira 14 tahun tempoh peristiwa Thunami, kepesatan bandar menampakan bumi kecil ini maju dan terus membangun dari hari ke hari. Aceh bumi serambi mekah yang begitu jelas menampakkan budaya islam diamalkan. Rata-rata wanita semua bertudung dan sopan dalam pemakaian "skirt" yang labuh itu. Ada yang berkhimar labuh menandakan negeri kecil ini tersinar ilmu agamanya. Sungguh indah aku lihat mereka!

Kena tahan di Kastam Aceh

"kotak ini ada apa? dan untuk apa?" tanya pak kastam kepada salah seorang ahli rombongan kami. Kedengaran sayu soalan itu, dan dijawab jujur oleh seorang ahli rombongan , "ini semuanya baju-baju untuk diagihkan, kami dalam misi pak". "Misi apa ya?" soalan serius itu ditanya kembali. "Misi Kemanusiaan untuk anak yatim di Kampung Aceh sini..." ketua kami menyambung, "kami dalam misi bersama daripada salah satu universiti  di Malaysia...". Namun nampak kejengkelan dan ketidak selesaan dengan jawapan yang kami berikan.

"Bukakan kami mahu lihat semuanya." arah pak kastam tesebut. Habis semua kotak kami dibuka dan diselongkar tanda protes mereka mungkin ada sesuatu yang tidak kena. Seusai itu, kami ahli yang lain menunggu di ruangan luar berdebar menanti saat perlepasan untuk barangan sumbangan yang ditahan di Kastam itu. Mana tidaknya, barangan sumbangan daripada orang ramai untuk misi menjadi tahanan mereka. Lama juga wakil kami berbincang dan akhirnya...

"kalau mahu, bayar dulu RP..." bisik salah seorang pegawai kepada ketua rombongan kami. Akhirnya, ketua rombongan kami tiada daya melawan Pak Kastam mereka, dan barangan sumbangan terpaksa dibiarkan atas sebab tertentu. kata Pak Mukhlis ,pak supir kami, dia akan cuba membantu mengeluarkan barangan sumbangan tersebut nanti. Kesalnya kami kerana mereka tidak membenarkan barangan sumbangan itu diberikan kepada mereka yang memerlukan. Tambah lagi dengan adegan seumpama "rasuah" tersebut lagi membuatkan kami terkedu. "Takpe, jangan risau Ada rezeki lain nanti yang pasti kita jangan terlibat dengan perkara yang ragu-ragu." salah seorang Doktor kami mempositifkan keadaan kembali. 

Hari pertama dan hari kedua kami sungguh padat dengan aktiviti akademik. Kami melawat sekitar 2 universiti yang hebat di Banda Aceh ini. Universiti UIN Ar-Raniry dan Universiti Syiah Kuala. Perkongsian dan perjanjian dua hala antara universiti disini dan UNISZA sungguh mengkagumkan. Forum ringkas turut diadakan bagi menjana pemikiran mahasiswa mahasiswa dalam melontorkan idea dan pendapat sendiri. Juga kami dapat melawat sekitar falkuti ekonomi disini dan berkenalan sesama kenalan baru yang semuanya ramah dan baik sekali. Antaranya : Suri Rahma, Vina, Rizka, Jusmaidi dan Arif, seorang pelajar Malaysia yang sekarang sedang menyambung pengajiannya disana yang juga merupaka tour guide kami.

Hari berikutnya bermulalah misi kemanusiaan serta lawatan ringkas di sekitar kawasan Banda Aceh ini. Apa nak diceritakan ya? hehehe... okey satu persatu. 

1. Sejarah dahulu sebenarnya mendatangkan Thunami itu. Bah Air yang besar itu sesungguhnya telah meranapkan sekalian besar kawasan disini yang ada tempat menjadi padang jarak padang terkukur. Allahu Akbar. Digambarkan air bah yang datang itu 3 kali ombaknya , dan setinggi 3 kali pokok kelapa. Allahu Akbar. Sungguh maha berkuasa sususnan Allah telah membersihkan segala kekususutan masalah dalaman politik yang dulunya hura hara ,inilah yang diceritakan salah seorang warga Aceh sekitar 20 tahun yang lalu sebelum Thunami itu melanda keadaan mereka sedikit kucar kacir dengan masalah dalaman politik agama dan sebagainya. Begitulah hikmahnya yang mereka dapat lihat sesudah Allah memberikan Thunami agar mata-mata dapat dibuka melihat segala yang disusun tersebut merupakan peringatan juga pembersihan dari segala permasalahan dengan hikmahnya. Meskipun Thunami tersebut telah meranap dan memberi impak emosi sedih kepada mereka yang kehilangan ahli keluarga, namun setiap yang berlaku itu telah disusun Tuhan sebaiknya.

2. Aku menyaksikan beberapa peninggalan Thunami yang memberikan pengajaran hebat buat kita yang masih hidup ini betapa kerdilnya daya dan upaya apabila sekali ujian air bah itu melanda. Antara tempat yang sempat kami lawati Kapal Atas Rumah, BOT besar PLTD Kapal Apung, Kubah terbiar, Masjid Baitur Rahim dan Masjid Baitu Rahman.

"Kapal Atas Rumah" telah memperlihatkan kami bertapa besar dan kuatnya gelombang air itu sehingga mampu membawa kapal yang dilaut untuk hanyut ke salah satu kampung dan berhenti tersangkut di rumah yang dikatakan merupakan salah seorang orang alim disitu. Beberapa orang yang terselamat di atas kapal tersebut masih hidup sehingga kini, antaranya salah seorang makcik tua yang kini menjadi  penjaga di kapal atas rumah itu sekarang. Cerita mereka ratanya semua memberikan kesan mendalam buat mereka. 

"Kapal Apung PLTD" itu pula yang katanya amat berat sekali juga tersadai di salah satu tempat di bandar . Jisim kapal itu serius memang berapa pound kilo beratnya pun memang tak boleh digambarkan, besar sekali lebih kurang macam kapal titanic gitu. Kini kapal itu dibiarkan sahaja disitu menjadi saksi bisu yang dahulunya pernah diabawa ombak Thunami kesitu. Free sahaja nak pergi dan masuk kesini. Sesudah naik di bahagian atas sekali, kita dapat melihat pemandangan cantik sekitar kawasan itu. 

"Kubah terbiar" terdampar ini merupakan Kubah Masjid Jami' Lamteungoh yang diceritakan dihanyukan dibawa ombak merentasi bukit daripada kampung sebelah. Anehnya dan eloknya kubah itu tidak rosak dan pecah walaupun dibawa ombak sejauh itu. Dikatakan juga semua warga yang berdekatan disini semuanya meninggal. Mayat ahli keluarga tidak dapat dikenalpasti dek gelombang bawah arus yang sungguh kuat dan panas kerana air laut yang datang itu hasil daripada gerakan dan gegaran bawah tanah dari dasar laut yang cukup dalam dan panas. Dikatakan juga, hampir kesemua mayat adalah berwarna hitam dan sukar dikenal pasti.

Salah satu masjid yang tersebar luas menjadi popular saat Thunami dahulu ialah Masjid Rahmatullah yang terletak di Kampung Lampuuk yang sekitarnya rumah, bangunan, sekolah, balai-balai semuanya hancur sehingga yang tinggal hanya lah sebuah masjid yang sekelilingnya seperti padang jarak padang terkukur. Allahu sungguh hebat allah menyelamatkan masjid tersebut. Kami melawat masjid itu dan sekitar hujung sudut majid tersebut masih dibiarkan tinggalan sisa yang nampak masih ada kerang-kerang yang dibiarkan sahaja. Salah satu tiang bengkok juga tidak dibaiki agar dapat menjadi saksi kepada orang lain untuk melihatnya. 

Diceritakan Tok Imam saat beliau bergolak dengan arus air bawah ombak, Maha Kuasa Allah yang telah menyelamatkan beliau sehingga kini. Begitulah Allah memilih hambanya untuk diuji dan beruntungnya apabila diuji bukan semakin menjauh dengan tuhan malah lebih dekat dan taat serta mengambil iktibar dalam setiap kejadian yang diujikan. Begitulah hambanya yang beriman, dan nampaknya Tok Imam itu sungguh menjiwai sehingga apa yang diceritakan hal peribadinya itu mampu memberi sentuhan jiwa dan perasaan emosi kesedihan dalam kalangan ahli rombongan kami. Jauh dari sudut hati, Allah juga sedang mengajarkan kami erti syukur dalam pengajaran Thunami itu kira-kira 14 tahun yang lalu lamanya.

3. Misi Sukarelawan kami bermula bersama anak yatim di salah satu perkampungan miskin jauh dalam pendalaman di Aceh ini. Bangganya melihat peninggalan gambar dan cenderamata disitu, rupanya rumah kecil ini yang menjadi markas anak-anak yatim belajar ini pernah dibantu warga Malaysia sebelumnya. rumah ini juga diwakafkan salah seorang warga Malaysia, masyaallah murni betul hati mereka. Antara yang dapat kusingkap dalam ingatan, mereka adalah warga UITM, artis Faizal tahir dan lain-lain. Alhamdulillah sumbangan ikhlas yang kami kumpulkan dapat diagihkan disini. Syukur kita dapat membantu insan istemewa ini, dan mereka amat berterima kasih dengan kita rakyat Malaysia yang sudi dan pemurah dalam amal kebajikan sebegini. Alhamduillah ini cuma sumbangan moral dan sedikit sumbangan kecil yang mampu kami kongsikan bersama. 

4. Misi Seterusnya kami bergabung dengan Mahasiswa Universiti Ar- Raniry dalam menjayakan program bersama orang miskin Kampung Gampong Tanjung Minjei disini. Sedikit sumbangan makanan dan wang tunai diagihkan kepada keluarga yang memerlukan. Alhamdulillah kami juga melawat kawasan sekitar dan rumah kecil mereka yang ada dalam kalangan mereka tinggal daif sekali. Anak-anak kecil ada yang tidak bersekolah, masjid dalam pembinaan, payahnya hidup dirasai, namun mereka seolah kalis dengan keadaan sebegini. Erti syukur mereka sungguh tinggi sehinggakan senyuman ceria wajah mereka tidak menampakkan sebarang kesulitan yang ada.

5. Muzium Thunami, Muzium Aceh, Rumah Chut juga menjadi tempat lawatan kami. 6 hari kami disani padat dengan lawatan dan misi yang sangat bermanfaat. satu lagi yang best disini semestinya makanan dan minumannya. Yang dirindukan sudah pasti jus avacoda yang merupakan kesukaan saya. Makanan mereka bagi saya sedap semuanya, dan kena dengan selera saya sendiri. Ikan Bakar sangat murah disana, ayam penyet sambal original disana sangat enak, buah durian rm10 boleh tahan sedapnya, semua sekali lah, memang yummyyy dan superb. 

Sesungguhnya lawatan akademik, lawatan tempat bersejarah, lawatan misi sukarelawan 6 hari 5 malam ini sedikit sebanyak membuka mata akan peristiwa Thunami yang hitam itu bagi kita, namun merupaka peristiwa "putih" memberi sinar buat bumi aceh ini. Dahulunya tiada pelancong kini merupakan tempat utama untuk dilawati. Dahulunya tidak aman ada pergaduhan, kini sudah aman dan semakin sentosa. Banda Aceh, bandar serambi mekah. Masjid Baitur Rahman ditengah kota kini dibini payung besar menjadi tuduhan terik mentari persis majid Nabawi. Moga bumi ini terus dipelihara. 

Alhamdulilllah, pada 29 Ogos 2017 ,Kami pulang Ke Malaysia dengan selamat. Misi ini sangat bermakna buat kami semua. Terima kasih semua dermawan yang menyumbang, ahli rombongan yang sangat supportive bersemangat jiwa besar dalam misi ini, pihak UNISZA, semua pensyarah - Prof dan Dr, dan semua yang terlibat secara langsung dan tidak langsung. 

Masjid Baitur Rahman

Lawatan Akademik ke University Syiah Kuala


kanak - kanak Aceh PTLD



RumOh Aceh, Rumah lama 

 Misi bersama anak yatim

di Kapal Atas Rumah . mak cik tudung Hitam dan pink itu yang terselamat dalam kejadian Thunami

ayam penyet Aceh


Thursday, September 28, 2017

Gadis masuk workshop

Masih segar dalam ingatan seminggu yang lalu pengalaman yang cukup berharga buat seorang perempuan apabila masuk tempat yang kalau boleh minta dijarangkan untuk pergi iaitu ke workshop. Normal lah kan, perempuan kalau dapat kereta memang suka sangat, dapat bawa tapi kalau jadi sesuatu memang akan kalut dan minta dijauhkan perkara yang rumit2 tu pasal tayar ke, enjin ke, kereta ke... 

Biaselah bila tiba tarikh untuk service kereta, berdaya tahan kuat untuk melangkahkan kaki ke workshop untuk giliran service. Kalau boleh sekiranya ada ayah, abang, adik lelaki atau suami, memang mereka menjadi mangsa pertolongan saat itu. Betul kan? Haah memang macam tu pun. Kisah haritu saya kena settlekan service kereta. Dah hantar kedai, saya pesan kalau siap service dan baiki call je saya, saya datang. Tapi, tak sampai 10 minit, ada satu panggilan masuk, "dik, kereta dik ni ade problem, datang lah saya terang dulu then baru adek decide" . Waktu tu memang kalau boleh saya fikir malasnya nak pergi balik ke workshop, hmmm paksa je diri pergi sana. 

Menariknya, tuan kedai itu ceritakan apa masalah kereta ayah saya yang memang sudah agak lama, diceritakan tentang enjin, draft shaft, alignment, bumper itu dan ini. Sejujurnya saya cuba untuk tumpukan perjatian sepenuhnya yang pada mula memang faham dan berakhir dengan buat2 faham jelahhh, hehe. Ilmu kereta yang sangat berguna buat saya, thank you boss workshop tu.

Kemudian cerita workshop tidak habis disitu, destinasi seterusnya adalah ke kedai accessories kereta. Break kereta yang semakin berkurang lampu, break reverse dan  wiper ditukar. Saya walk in je waktu tu, memang berdebar dengan first time nya ke tempat sebegitu mengundang risiko buat saya yang blur tentang accessories kereta ini. 

Apa yang terfikir waktu itu adalah, kalau dia tipu ke,dia salah pasang ke, memang sedikit gusar pada mulanya. Setelah lame disitu saya nampak keikhlasan warga Myanmar kerja di Mlaysia ini, mereka bersungguh untuk terangkan sesuatu dan segalanya. Aku hanya berdoa jangan mereka menganiayakan aku, haha dan jangan terkejut saya siap main  tawar menawar lagitu... 

Setelah hampir siap, dia boleh pancing lagi untuk accessories tambahan dia dalam kereta, tapi sorry to say, saya bukan peminta kereta 😂. Saya cuma tiada minat kearah itu, makanya apa yang diminati tetap handbag, shawl, dan buku. ❤️ Hati dah perempuan, tetap tiada yang mengubahnya.

Alhamdulillah sesuatu yang baru bagi diri saya ini, semoga menjadi kekuatan untuk wanita-wanita yang lain dalam usaha memperbaiki diri kita sendiri. Jadilah inilah cerita saya malam ni, harap semua bejaya dan kuat mengharungi sesuatu perkara. Wanita dan kereta sesuatu yang indah, jangan kita tewas. Malah setiap apa yang menjadi halangan itu adalah kekuatan untuk kita terus belajar. Apabila kita tekpuhinya, maka kita sedia menghadapi sesuatu yang lebih mencabar di masa akan datang. Tahniah dan good luck. Good night my car :) 



Ruang menunnggu


Wednesday, September 20, 2017

PENGALAMAN UJIBAKAT PENYAMPAI BERITA ARAB

satu mesej masuk, kemudian dua mesej, dan seterusnya... 
"panggilan ujibakat terbuka untuk penyampai berita arab pada 9 hb Septembet 2017 di Pusat Penyiaran Digital TV Al-Hijrah, Kuala Lumpur".

Sememangnya menjadi impian untuk menjadi salah seorang daripada orang pertama untuk menyampaikan segala maklumat. Aku terfikir, terpanggil untuk mencuba. Tapi apabila berfikir kembali akan keterbatasan diri setelah hampir 5 tahun tidak berlatih seeloknya dan mengamalkan sistem percakapan dan perbualan seharian dalam bahasa arab, aku mula rasa ragu-ragu untuk meneruskan niat ini. 

Kalau tak cuba, tak tahu dan tiada pengalaman. Jadi aku gagahkan diri pergi ke KL untuk mencuba nasib dan ingin merasai sendiri pengalaman berhadapan dengan kamera. Gembira sangat sebab dapat cuba, tapi tidak terpilih utuk peringkat seterusnya tak bermakna kita kalah. 

Pagi ini dengan perasaan yang bersedia, saya cuba tanam untuk cuba yang terbaik walaupun agak kurang 'preparation' untuk berhadapan dengan semua cabaran. Ujibakat terbuka yang julungnya ini, sesungguhnya mendapat sambutan yang amat memberansangkan. sedikit terkejut kerana calon yang hadir hampir dalam 200 untuk diujibakat tanpa mengira level pendidikan yang sememangnya semua adalah calon yang bukan biasa-biasa sahaja, malah ada antaranya Dr PHD, pencetus Ummah, para pendidik, student dan kagumnya warga arab juga hadir untuk memeriahkan suasana.

Sedikit point yang berlaku sepanjang hari ujibakat tersebut, antaranya :


  1. Tanpa dijangka, calon yang hadir sungguh ramai. Alhamdulillah, saya sampai dalam pukul 10 pagi, hadir dan terus daftar , dan dapat number 121, masa yang dipanggil pada pukul 1.30 pm.
  2. Perjalanan ujibakat : kami diberikan 3 situasi. pertama : untuk perkenalkan diri. Kedua : menyampai berita dalam bahasa arab yang telah disediakan. masa itu, aku kena pilih 2 berita. (jangan risau, kerana teks semua lengkap dalam bahasa arab siap berbaris lagi tu, cuma siapkan teks pembukaan dan penutup) . Ketiga : diuji untuk menjadi wartawan secara siaran langsung. (totally im failed with this, sebab dah lupa term arab and so on. btw, here some tips: rasanya okey je kalau sampai berita secara siaran langsung dalam bahasa melayu sebab jauh dari sudut hati saya nampak mereka menilai lenggok dan intonasi kita dalam penyampaian yang ada gaya seorang wartawan).
  3. FOKUS dan JELAS. 2 point ini sangat penting. seingat saya dalam perbualan saya bersama Kak Amie Sofia, seorang pengacara Tv al-hijrah, Dia pesan : fokus dan jelas.Fokus untuk sampaikan berita, mata pandang kamera, eye-contact kalau secara langsung, fokus berita apa yang disampaikan. Jelas pula dari sudut penyampaian. Apa sahaja perkataan yang keluar dari mulut kita biar jelas dan betul intonasinya. jangan cakap ade mutiara dalam mulut. awak kene keluarkan dengan sebutan yang satu-satu dan teratur . Tak gapoh dan tenang steady. i do what kak amie told me, and feel is it me? wowwww fell more confident bila kita cakapa jelas! seriously, boleh apply juga dimasa akan datang.
  4. Juri , mereka yang menjadi juri kami waktu itu dalam kalangan kakitangan kerja Tv Al-Hijrah juga. sejujurnya saya tak kenal semua, melainkan Wan Kamarudin penyampai berita jam 8 malam itu. Yang pasti semuanya hebat dan saya kagum dengan kebolehan yang tersendiri. Amazing!
Betul, memang betul perasaan yang mulanya kalau tak cuba tak tahu, bila dah cuba baru faham dan rasa apa yang dilalui. Sesungguhnya ia pengalaman yang sangat berharga buat diri ini. Tahniah kepada 2 kawan seperkenalan saya pada pagi sebelum masuk untuk diujibakat, Kak Fatin dan Sumayyah (pelestinian), moga kalian berjaya . Of course i am so proud to them sebab pagi tu kami sama2 berbual dan  revise cakap arab tanya khabar serta berkongsi maklumat. to you berdua, All The best, may Allah bless you all.

ujibakat seterusnya? semestinya YES! insyaallah. 

Monday, June 19, 2017

ISTISHAB AND THE RANDOM ISSUES

 this article were wrote by Habibah, currently continue in Master Islamic Finance in UNISZA 2017. 


ISTISHAB AND THE RANDOM ISSUES
 OF ISLAMIC FINANCE’S PRODUCT

Prepared by ;
Habibah Solehah Binti Ramli
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin , UNISZA 2017
MMA16 SL1838


Submitted to ;
Dr Bunyamin Bello
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin , UNISZA 2017


1.1     PROBLEM STATEMENT
Islam is a complete and detailed religion from law side. Everything has been arranged by Allah in the Qur'an and Prophet in the Sunnah. Quran and Sunnah are the highest sources of Islamic law, because it is certain and there is no doubt inside. From these two sources, so Islamic law explored and found to regulate the lives of God's creatures in the world.
To find and establish Islamic law, scholars mobilize all the ability of his reason, which is commonly referred to ijtihad. In doing ijtihad, scholars formulate some methods. Qiyas method is considered the most powerful and high quality. If the results of these methods agreed by all scholars, it is called ijma'.Qiyas and ijma' are the argument that agreed by all Islamic scholars.
There are several methods of ijtihad which not all scholars agree. Among them are: Istihsan, Maslahahal-mursalah, Istishab, 'Urf, Syar'u man qablana, etc. In this paper will be presented in one of the methods of ijtihad, it is Istishab, either from understanding, kinds, or it’s proofing.
Islamic banking is banking based on Islamic Law (Sharia ). It follows the shariah, called fiqh muamalat (Islamic rules on transactions). The rules and practices of fiqh muamalat came from Al-Quran and As –Sunnah, and other secondary sources of Islamic law. The foundation of Islamic economics, the parents science of Islamic Banking are based on the concept of economic wellbeing, universal brotherhood, justice, equitable distribution of income, and freedom of the individual within the context of social welfare. Islam also encourages truthfulness in business transactions and raises the status of a truthful merchant.
Islamic finance is a term that reflect to financial business that is not contradictory to Sharia principle. In Islamic law, one of important principle is calles Istihab which means, the presumption of permissibility. Hence this definite the original rulling for every matter is permissible unless proven otherwise. The issue is when Islamic finance is coming after non-compliant were practiced in this century. This means Islamic finance must take on distinctive features with an innovative approach to remain true to Sharia principle while being remain competitive against conventional finance at the same time.
1.2     SCOPE OF STUDY
The study will be focused mainly on the Istishab and their issue in Islamic finance.

1.3     RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to prepare this paper, a few questions need to be answered as follows :
1.      What is the meaning of Istishab?
2.      What kinds of Istishab?
3.      What are the legal maxims that related to istishab and practising in Islamic Finance.?
1.4     OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follows :
1.      To understand the idea of Istishab and the opinion of scholars about Istishab proofing.
2.      To study kinds of Istishab.
3.      To identify the legal maxims that related to istishab and practising in Islamic Finance.

2.   LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     REVIEW ON ISTISHAB
What does the following text mean: If, for example, on account of the long absence of someone, it is doubtful whether he is alive or dead, then by Istishab, all rules must remain in force which would hold if one knew for certain that he was still alive. Before the person is absent we know that he/she was alive. If we don’t know whether they are still alive or not as of now we look at what we already know: that he/she was alive the last time, so this fact is not going to change until we have ample and adequate proofs that he/she has passed on.      (Dr B Philips)
Islamic economic system ‘exists’ in the sense of having its own ethical values, a set of economic objectives, as well as policy instruments. In other words, it can be seen as an “optimum regime” which optimally combines the concerns of social justice with those of economic growth. And, as in any other economic system, the problem is to maximize social welfare subject to well defined constraints and ‘initial conditions’. The presumption is that such an ethically motivated regime, on a priori grounds, has as high a probability of success as any other economic system in solving man’s known economic problem, even at a lower cost; and that it can stand its ground as it “opens up, interacts, and competes with other (economic) systems.” (Sirageldin 1995).
Other scholars define this principle as public welfare as cited by (Abdurrahman I. Doi 1984). This principle together with other principles like istishab and istihsan go back in their origin to reason; to the study of the reasons behind the rules, to the fulfillment of the interests of the people in their social life and to abiding as closely as possible with absolute good and the dictates of justice and equity (S. Mahmassani, 2000)
Islamic finance is a term that reflects financial business that is not contradictory to Shar’ia principles. An important principle in Islamic law is istishab, the ‘presumption of permissibility’. This dictates that the original ruling for every matter is permissible unless proven otherwise. However, there are core practices of conventional finance which are non-compliant to essential Shar’ia requirements. This means Islamic finance must take on distinctive features with an innovative approach which distinguish it from conventional finance in order to remain true to Shar’ia principles while being competitive against conventional finance at the same time. For example, conventional finance, especially the banking industry, is based on taking deposits and giving out loans while charging interest as a premium. This is strictly against the Shar’ia since money in Islam is a medium of exchange and cannot earn money by itself, and so in Islamic banking alternative relationships must exist between the bank and customers which must be asset-backed, such as  trading, leasing and investment activities.( Mohammed Zeeshan Yousuf,2014)
The stance taken by the Shafi’i school on the waqf of movables is based upon Imam Shafi’i ruling that the waqf of anything is valid from which profit can be derived whilst its original endures. What is important here is that the original capital of the waqf, corpus, should not diminish due to consumption and should be renewable from time to time by its usufruct. But the perpetuity of the waqf is not a condition sine qua non for the Shafi’is. Thus, the difficult debate witnessed among the Hanafis, as described above, does not exist among the Shafi’is. It is said that the condition that the original capital should endure is to guard against cash waqfs because it is not possible to benefit by them consistently (Suhrawardy, 1911: 342). This negative view is also supported by the Ghayat al-Bayan. But then Imam Shafi’i’s position regarding custom must be remembered. Imam Shafi’i, like Abu Yusuf, ultimately approves of the waqf of movables subject to custom. Moreover, on the issue of custom he is almost as flexible as Muhammad al-Shaybani, for he has introduced the concept of istishab. Istishab pertains to the existence of a thing established by evidence. Even though later some doubt might arise as to its continuance in existence, it is still considered to exist (Ibrahim, 1965: 69). Thus, a practice once proved to be widespread may be presumed to be both ancient and continuing. The relevance of istishab for cash waqfs is that their ancient existence during Imam Zufar’s time and their widespread and definitive existence in Ottoman lands between the fifteenth and twentieth centuries render them valid for the Shafi’is even today. It is not therefore surprising that they are presently considered to be valid in certain Shafi’i lands, as has been indicated at the beginning of this chapter. Cash Waqf: The Hanbali Position, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal has also accepted the Shafi’i condition that the endowment of any moveable is valid providing that the corpus of the waqf is not consumed and preserved. ( Murat Cizakca).
Decisions made by the SAC on disposal of the Shariah-compliant originally then declared Shariah-compliant is a sensible decision. In fact, the ownership of any declared Shariah-compliant securities are deemed as halal, including any benefit received from the ownership like dividend payments to the holders of securities. Hence, investors can hold on to that law as long as there is no evidence to suggest otherwise. It is based on a juristic method of istishab which refers to an act of maintaining an existing law as long as there is no evidence to change it (Zaidan, 1979)
Shubuhat are matters that are neither distinguishable as being halal nor haram, thus, not many people recognize them or know their ruling. Scholars, however, can reach a rule regarding such matters by applying a suitable text or qias (analogy) or istishab (accompanying). So if the scholar were to come across such a matter in which it is not immediately obvious whether it is halal or haram, then he would attempt to classify it as one of the two with the appropriate evidence. If he is able to classify it under halal then it is considered as such. Such matters may not be free of doubt even then and if it is so then it is safer to leave it falling thus under the Prophet’s words, "he who avoids doubtful deeds has achieved purity in his religion and his reputation". As for those matters that a mujtahed is unable to classify, should he rule it to be halal or haram or refrain from ruling (al-twaquf) (Al Nawwawi: Vol. 11∕27, 16∕111).
3.   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This project attempt to explain the concept of Istishab . Hence, the research will normally  involve library research in order to obtain the necessary information and required data.
Apart from that, articles and reports from journals, magazines, and form of mass media will also provide a source of information in the research.. The subject matter of the paper will involve an analysis in the research. Most of the secondary data will be obtained through this method.
Research is done in many libraries including state library in Terengganu and Unisza’s library as well.

4.   SCOPE OF RESEARCH
The study will be focused mainly on the Istishab and their  issue in Islamic finance.

5.   FINDINGS
5.1     Overview of the meanings and definition
1.     Definition
Istishab word is etymologically derived from the word “istashhaba” in sighat istif ’ala (استفعال) that means استمرارالصحبة whereas word الصحبة translated with friend or best friend and استمرار translated always or continuous, so istishab etymologically means “always accompany”.
Literally, Istishab means 'escorting' or `companionship'. Technically, istishab denotes a rational proof which may be employed in the absence of other indications; specifically, those facts, or rules of law and reason, whose existence or non-existence had been proven in the past, and which are presumed to remain so for lack of evidence to establish any change. The technical meaning of istishab relates to itsliteral meaning in the sense that the past `accompanies' the present without any interruption or change.

The meaning of the terminology istishab (term), there are several different formulations of scholars who provide istishab definition, but the difference was not until the principle.
a.       Asy-Syaukani in Irsyad Al-Fuhul define:
ان ما ثبت فى الزما ن الما ضى فالاصل بقاؤه فى الزما ن المستقبال
Everything that has been applied permanently in the past, the principle still applies in the future.”
b.      Ibnu al-Qayyim al-Jauziyah says:
استخدامة اثبت ماكان ثابتاونفي ماكان منفيا
Establish whatever set out and negate what was previously nothing.”
c.       Ibn As-Subki in the book Jam’u Al-Jawani volume II defines:
ثبوت امر فى الثانى لثبوته فى الاول لفقدان مايصلح للتخيير
"A validation of something in the second period because it has been applied in the first period because there was no proper to change it."
d.      Muhammad ‘Ubaidillah Al-As’adi formulated a definition:
إبقاء حكم ثبت بدليل في الماضي معتبر في الحال حتى يوجد دليل غير دليل الأول يغير
Confirm law laid down by an argument in the past considered this time to obtain other arguments that change it.”
e.       Definition according to Ibn al-Hummam from among scholars Hanafiyah:
بقاء دليل محقق لم يظن عدمه
The fixed of certain thing that no strong suspicion yet about the absence of it”.



2.     The Arguments of Istishab Applications
Arguments of Naqli:
1.      Al-Quran
The verses that used in istishab applications that is with regarding (istiqra) verses that describe about Islamic laws and it was fixed as long as there is no argument that change it.
As the prohibition of alcohol defined by Quran that explain the prohibition of khamr, if it has changed the nature to be vinegar so it is not prohibited because the intoxicate nature has gone.

That case located in Quran, surah al-Maidah verse 90:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالأَنصَابُ وَالأَزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ -٩٠-
O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.”
Another ayah from Surah Al-Anam 6:145 – “ Say: I did not find the revelation I received anything forbidden (to be eaten) to anyone wishes to eat, unless it is dead meet, blood poured forth or the flash of swine.
In this Quranic verse, it could be understood that everything is presumed to be permissible unless prescribed otherwise. This gives support to the principle of Istishab.

2.      As-Sunnah
From Abu Hurairah, the Prophet said:
إذا وجد أحدكم في بطنه شيئًا فأشكل عليه أخرج منه شيءٌ أم لا فلا يخرجنّ من المسجد حتى يسمع صوتًا أو يجد ريحًا (رواه مسلم)
When one of you feel something in his stomach then he doubted whether out something or not, so do not be left out the mosque so that heard sound, or break wind.” (Narrated by Muslim)
This hadith shows that a person with ablution is presumed to be in the state of ablution until he is certain that the ablution has been invalidated. This supports the principle of Istishab. One of the examples of Istishab is when a person is known to be indebted to another, he presumed such until it is proven that he settled the debt or was acquitted of it.
Arguments of aqli:
Instinctively, our mind can decide everything that allowed or not, existed and not by looking at its origins as long as there is no argument that denying the contrary. So it still like origin in law, as human was born into this world forever he is still live as long as there is no clear evidence that he was dead.
3.     Istishab Proofing
Usul fiqh experts have differed on opinion about Istishab proofing when there were no arguments that explain it, such as:
1.      According to the majority of Mutakallimin (theologians)
Istishab cannot be an argument, because a law which established in the past requires an argument. Similarly to establish the same law nowadays and future, should be based on the argument.
2.      According to the majority of Hanafiyah’s scholars, especially Muta’akhirin.
Istishab can be an argument to establish pre-existing law and consider the law still applied in the future, but it cannot establish the law that will be present.
3.      The scholars of Malikiyyah, Syafi'iyah, Hanabilah, Zahiriyyah and Syiah have a nation (opinion) that:
Istishab can be an absolute argument to establish the laws that have existed as long as there is no an argument that change it. Their reason is something that has been established in the past, as long as there is no arguments that change it either qath'i or zhanni, so the law that has specified still applied, because it alleged no alteration yet.

            Since istishab consists of a probability, namely the presumed continuity of the status quo ante, it is not a strong ground for the deduction of the rules of Shari'ah. Hence when istishab comes into conflict with another proof, the latter takes priority. As it is, istishab is the last ground of fatwa: when the jurist is asked about the ruling of a particular case, he must first search for a solution in the Qur'an, the Sunnah, consensus of opinion, and qiyas. If a solution is still wanting, he may resort to istishab in either its positive or negative capacities. Should there be doubt over the non-existence of something, it will be presumed to exist, but if the doubt is in the proof of something, the presumption will be that it is not proven. In the case of a missing person, for example, the nature of the situation is such that no other proof of Shari'ah could be employed to determine the question of his life or death. Since the main feature of the doubt concerning a missing person is the possibility of his death, istishab will presume that he is still alive. But in the event of an unsubstantiated claim when, for example, A claims that Bowes him a sum of money, the doubt here is concerned with the proof over the existence of a debt, which will be presumed unproven.

5.2     KINDS OF ISTISHAB
The scholars of usul al-fiqh substantially agree about the legal weight of four types of istishab:
1.      Presumption of the original permissibility (istishab al-ibahah al-asliyyah) of things for which the Shariah has not prescribed any specific ruling. The majority of usul scholars agree that the original ruling. The majority of usul scholars agree that the original ruling for every useful activity is that permissible. Two kinds of evidence can override the original ruling:
a.       Specific Shariah evidence that an act is prohibited
b.      Empirical evidence that it poses serious harm to life, religion, intellect or property.


2.      Presumption of the absence (istishab al-adam al-asli) of any Shariah ruling. This principle is known through reason. On its basis, people are taken to be free from any liability in the absence of positive evidence establishing it. This type is under Maxims 11 : “ Freedom from liability is pre-existing and therefore prevailing state”.
3.      Presumption of comprehensiveness (istishab al-umum); this presumes that a ruling is general as long as no other evidence limits its scope. A related presumption is istishab al-nass; divine texts are presumed to remain operative as long as there is no proof of their abrogation(naskh).
4.      Presumption of continuance of an attribute (istishab al-wasf) until the contrary is prove. For example, the continuance of ownership is presumed when a cause of ownership- for example, a sale contract – has been established.

From the viewpoint of the nature of the conditions that are presumed to continue, istishab is divided into four types an follows:
1) Presumption of original absence (istishab al-'adam al-asli),
Which means that a fact or rule of law which had not existed in the past is presumed to be non-existent until the contrary is proved. Thus a child and an uneducated person are presumed to remain so until there is a change in their status, for example by attaining majority, or obtaining educational qualifications respectively. Similarly if A, who is a trading partner to B, claims that he has made no profit, the presumption of absence will be in A's favour unless B can prove otherwise. Another area which is determined by the presumption of original absence is the original freedom from liability, or the presumption of innocence, which will be separately discussed later.[10. Shawkani, Irshad, p. 238; Badran, Usul, p. 219; Abu Zahrah, Usul, p. 236.]

2) Presumption of original presence (istishab al-wujud al-asli).
This variety of istishab takes for grantedthe presence or existence of that which is indicated by the law or reason. For example, when A is known to be indebted to B, A is presumed such until it is proved that he has paid the debt or was acquitted of it. Provided that B's loan to A is proven in the first place as a fact, this is sufficient to give rise to the presumption of its continuity and B need not prove the continuity of the loan in question every day of the month. Similarly, under the presumption of original presence, the purchaser is presumed liable to pay the purchase price by virtue of the presence of the contract of sale until it is proved that he has paid it. By the same token, a husband is liable to pay his wife the dower (mahr) by virtue of the existence of a valid marriage contract. In all these instances, istishab presumes the presence of a liability or a right until an indication to the contrary is found. The ulema are in agreement on the validity of this type of istishab, which must prevail until the contrary is proved.[11. Khallaf,`Ilm, p.92.]

3) Istishab al-hukm, (juristical)
Istishab which presumes the continuity of the general rules and principle, of the law. As earlier stated, istishab is not only concerned with presumption of facts but also with the established rules and principles of the law. Istishab thus takes for granted the continued validity of the provisions of the Shari'ah in regard to permissibility and prohibition (halal and haram). When there is a ruling in the law, whether prohibitory or permissive, it will be presumed to continue until the contrary is proved. But when there is no such ruling available, recourse will be had to the principle of ibahah, which is the general norm of Shari'ah law concerning a matter that is deemed beneficial and free of evil consequences. Hence when the law is silent on a matter and it is not repugnant to reason it will be presumed to be permissible.
This is the majority view, although some Mu'tazilah have held a variant opinion, which is that the general norm in Shari'ah is prohibition unless there is an indication to the contrary. The principle of permissibility (ibahah) originates in the Qur'an, in particular those of its passages which subjugate the earth and its resources to the welfare of man. Thus we read in sura al-Baqarah (2:29): `It is He who has created for you all that is in the earth,' and in sura al-Jathiyah, (45:13) that 'God has subjugated to you all that is in the heavens and in the earth. These Qur'anic declarations take for granted that man should be able to utilise the resources of the world around him to his advantage, which is another way of saying that he is generally permitted to act in the direction of securing his benefits unless he has been expressly prohibited.
 Hence all objects, legal acts, contracts and exchange of goods and services which are beneficial to human beings are lawful on grounds of original ibahah.[12. Abu Zahrah, Usul, p. 236; Khallaf, 'Ilm, p. 92; Badran, Usul, p. 219; Khudari, Usul, pp. 354-55.] But when the legal norm in regard to something is prohibition, then istishab presumes its continuity until there is evidence tosuggest that it is no longer prohibited.
4) Istishab al-wasf (nature, characteristic)
Continuity of attributes, such as presuming clean water (purity being an attribute) to remain so until the contrary is established to be the case (for example, through a change in its colour or taste). Similarly, when a person makes an ablution to perform the salah, the attribute of ritual purity (taharah) is presumed to continue until it is vitiated. A mere doubt that it might have been vitiated is not sufficient to nullify taharah. By the same token, a guarantor (kafil - kafalah being a juridical attribute) remains responsible for the debt of which he is guarantor until he or the debtor pays it or when the creditor acquits him from payment.[13. Ibn al-Qayyim, I'lam, I, 295; Badran, Usul, p. 219.]
The jurists are in agreement on the validity, in principle, of the first three types of istishab, although they have differed in their detailed implementation, as we shall presently discuss. As for the fourth type of istishab, which relates to the attributes, whether new or well-established, it is a subject on which the jurists have disagreed. The Shafi'i and the Hanbali schools have upheld it absolutely, whereas the Hanafi and Maliki schools accept it with reservations. The case of the missing person is discussed under this variety of istishab, as the question is mainly concerned with the continuity of his life-life being the attribute. Since the missing person (mafqud) was alive at the time when he disappeared, he is presumed to be alive unless there is proof that he has died. He is therefore entitled, under the Shafi'i and Hanbali doctrines, to inherit from a relative who dies while he is still a missing person. But no-one is entitled to inherit from him for the obvious reason that he is presumed alive. Yet under the Hanafi and Maliki law,the missing person neither inherits from others nor can others inherit from him.

The Hanafis and Malikis accept istishab al-wasf only as a means of defense, that is, to defend the continued existence of an attribute, but not as a means of proving new rights and new attributes. Istishab can therefore not be used as a means of acquiring new rights for the missing person, but can be used so as to protect all of his existing rights. To use a common expression, istishab can only be used as a shield, not as a sword.If, for example, the missing person had owned property at the time of his disappearance, he continues to be the owner.
Similarly his marital rights are presumed to continue, just as he remains responsible to discharge his obligations until his death is established by evidence or by a judicial decree. But for as long as he remains a missing person, he will not be given a share in inheritance or bequest, although a share will be reserved for him until the facts of his life or death are established. If he is declared dead,the reserved share will be distributed among the other heirs on the assumption that he was dead at the time of the death of his relative. Upon declaration of his death his own estate will be distributed among his heirs as of the time the court declares him dead. This is the position under the Hanafi and Maliki schools, which maintain that although the mafqud is presumed to be alive, this is only a presumption, not a fact, and may therefore not be used as a basis for the creation of new rights.[14. Shawkani, Irshad, p. 238; Abu Zahrah, Usul, p. 237; Badran, Usul, p. 223; Coulson, Succession, p. 198ff.]
The question may arise: why can his heirs not inherit from the mafqud? If nothing is certain, perhaps his heirs could be assigned their shares, or the shares may be reserved in their names until the facts are known. In response to this, the Hanafis invoke the principle of "original absence", which means here that a right to inheritance is originally absent and will be presumed so until there is positive proof that it has materialised.





 5.3    THE APPLICATION OF ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS TO ISLAMIC FINANCE
Fiqh scholars established some rules based on Istishab, such as:
1.      الأصل  البراءة الذمة   - Freedom from liability is the fundamental principle
The origin of this maxim goes to the Quranic verse declaring the original permissibility of all things:
Say, "I do not find within that which was revealed to me [anything] forbidden to one who would eat it unless it be a dead animal or blood spilled out or the flesh of swine  ( surah al-anam:145)
In this Quranic verse it is understood that everything is presumed to be permissible unless otherwise prescribed in the Shariah. Similarly a person is deemed to be free from any liability unless there is evidence to show otherwise as the origin of man is free from any liability.
Thus in case of loss in business for example, a partner cannot allege wilful neglect and require the latter to indemnify him for the loss, unless he proves the contrary. Failing this proof the partner will not be personally made liable to the loss nor to indemnify the other partner. Any doubt affecting his position of freedom from liability will be untenable. No arbitrary judgement of the contender would be acceptable.
It means that basically a person is not burdened with responsibilities before there was an argument that established the responsibilities of someone. Therefore, a defendant in any problems could not be convicted before the existence of strong and convincing evidence that he is guilty.
Application of the Maxim in Islamic Finance :
1.      A dispute arises between the lessor and lessee on the amount of the rental fee after the asset has been fully utilized. If neither side has evidence, the Shariah initially accepts the lessee’s claim along with his oath. That is because both parties positions coincide on the lessor must provide evidence to establish it because the starting rule is that the lessee is free from liability for anything above the agreed amount.
2.      A lessor is not allowed to ask the lessee to pay the maintenance of the leased property, or insurance for it, or similar expenses because such expenses are incurred for the benefit of the property owner. Since the lessee is not the owner. He is free of liability for such expenses.
3.      An accountholder claims that he made a deposit into his account using a cash deposit machine that malfunctioned, taking the money without issuing a receipt. The bank denies the claim. The burden of proof is on the depositor since any deposit creates a liability on the bank (wadiah yad amanah), and the original ruling is that the bank is free of liability.
4.      One party gives an amount of money to another , and then they dispute over whether it was giving as a loan or as a deposit for safekeeping (wadiah yad amanah), and neither has evidence to establish his claim. In this case, it will be considered wadiah because the loan carries the liability   of repaying it in any event whereas the wadiah results in liability only in case of negligence or misconduct. Considering it wadiah is consistent with the original state of freedom from liability.
5.      If a merchant claims he sold goods to a certain person and the person denies the sale, the burden of proof is on the merchant because he is seeking to establish a liability on the party while the original state is freedom from liability.

2.      الأصل بقاء ماكان علي ما كان – The basic rule is that a thing remains in its original

This maxim means that a thing is presumed to remain in its original state unless there is proof to the contrary. Every shariah ruling established in the past remains unaltered to the present in the absence of other Sahria evidence that supersedes the past ruling. On the basis, the permissibility of an action will remain as it was until there is evidence to the contrary. Likewise, obligatory worship will remain as it is long as no evidence supersedes the obligatory ruling. In the terminology of usul fiqh, this is known as istishab.
In another means, that basically all of existing laws considered that is valid until found the argument that shows the law does not apply anymore. For example, a wife who left by her husband and doesn’t know the location of the husband, she prohibited to marry with another person, because she still tied with her husband.

Application of the Maxim in Islamic Finance :         
1.      When a customer applies for financing, the bank does a credit check to determine whether or not he will be able to afford the monthly payments. It will only accept the financing request when it is satisfied regarding the customer’s financial ability. If the customer later delays payment and claims it is because he is facing financial difficulties due to change in his circumstances, he must supply proof for his claim because the presumption is that things remain as they were.
2.      If an Islamic bank states that the depositor has withdrawn his deposit but the depositor denies it, the burden of proof is on the bank since the original legal position is that the depositor had deposited the money.
3.      If a person who is covered by a takaful life insurance policy goes missing, his relatives cannot claim the benefits of the policy until his death becomes established. That is because what is known for certain is that he was alive; therefore, he is presumed to be still alive until there is evidence to the contrary.

4.      If two parties agree that a sale occurred, and the buyer claims that he paid the price of the asset to the seller while the seller denies it, the seller’s claim is accepted on the basis that a buyer is liable to pay a seller, so the buyer in this case is liable to pay, and the legal duty is the basis of the presumption of fact until evidence is provided to the contrary. In contrast, if they dispute the delivery of the asset purchased, the accepted claim is the buyer’s because the sale make the seller liable for its delivery, and this is presumed to remain in effect barring contrary evidence.




3.      الأصل في الصفات العارضة العدم  - The presumption is that development of legal significance is only of recent occurrence

This maxim is another corollary of the leading maxim “Certainty is not overcome by doubt”. It focuses on the time of any given event and is particularly relevant to disputes among transacting parties. In principle, if a dispute occurs regarding the time that an event occurred, and if the time can be identified, the decision will be based on that time. However, if the time of an event is in doubt, the decision will the based on the nearest time to the present because it is more certain unless the contrary us proven.

The general meaning of the maxim is that if a dispute between two parties occurs regarding the time of an event, and no proof is provided, judgment should be made on the basis of the nearest time to the present. That is because both parties agree that the event had occurred by the later of the two times whereas only one of them claims that it happened before that. The occurrence of the event by the most recent time is thus a matter of agreement and certainty while its occurrence before that is in doubt. Hence, consideration is given to what is certain.
Application of the Maxim in Islamic Finance :
1.      In the case of sukuk mudharabah, if a dispute occurs between the obligor (mudarib) and the sukuk holders (rabb al-mal) as to whether any profit was realized from the project, the world of the mudarib will be taken, and the sukuk holders need to provide evidence to prove that profit has been earned.
2.      Regarding entitlement to takaful benefits, the fact that deceased has more than one wife is a claim which should be proved. That is because marriage is a transitory attribute.
3.      A dispute occurs between a buyer and a seller in a sale contract as to whether or not the option of cancellation (khiyar al-shart) was stipulated and agreed to in the contract. In this case, the presumed position is the non-existence of the stipulated option on the ground that it is not an intrinsic part of the contract.


4.      A bank sells a car and hands it over to the buyer. A week later the buyer claims that the car had a defect while the seller denies it. In this case, jurist will consider the claim of the seller supported by his oath on the basis that absence of defect is the original condition of the car while the defectiveness is not. Hence the buyer’s claim is not accepted in the absence of evidence to override the original rule.


4.      الأصل اٍضافة الحادث اٍلى أقرب وقتهThe presumption is that a development of legal significance is only of recent occurrence.
This maxim is another corollary of the leading maxim “Certainty is not overcome by doubt”. It focuses on the time of any given event and is particularly relevant to disputes among transacting parties. In principle, if a dispute occurs regarding the time that an event occurred, and if the time can be identified, the decision should be based on that time. However, if the time of an event is in doubt, the decision will then be based on the nearest time to the present because it is more certain unless the contrary is proven.
The explanation of the maxim is hadith is derived from the verb hadatha/yahduthu: ‘to occur, come to pass’. Hadith means ‘incident, occurrence, event, episode, accident, mishap’. The general meaning of the maxim is that if a dispute between two parties occurs regarding the time of an event, and no proof  is provided, judgement should be made on the basis of the nearest time to the present. That is because both parties agree that the event had occurred by the later of the two times whereas only one of them claims that it happened before that. The occurrence of the event by the most recent time is thus a matter of agreement and certainty while its occurrence before that is in doubt. Hence, consideration is given to what is certain.
 Application of the Maxim in Islamic Finance :
1.      A buyer purchases an asset from a seller with the option (khiyar) to return it for a refund within a certain period. After the option period, the buyer comes to the seller to revoke the contract and return the asset, but the seller rejects his right to do so, saying, “you are revoking the contract after the option period has expired so your revocation is unacceptable.” The buyer argues that he already cancelled the contract during the option period.
In this dispute, the accepted claim is the seller’s on the basis that the revocation is fixed to the nearest point in time to the dispute , which is after the option period has expired.
2.      A sale contract has been concluded, and the subject matter of the sale contract is delivered to the buyer. After a few days, the buyer informs the seller that the asset is defective, and a dispute arises between them. They both agree about the existence of the defect; they disagree as to when it occurred. The seller argues that the defect was caused by the buyer after he received it while the buyer claims the asset was already defective at the time of delivery. In this dispute, the Shariah consider the claim of the seller in the basis that his claim occurred at a time nearer to the time of the dispute. Hence, the buyer has no right to cancel the contract unless he can prove the defect was present at the time of delivery.
3.      A muwakkil (principal) appoints a wakil (agent) to sell an asset on his behalf, which he does. However, the principle then claims that he had terminated the agency before the sale, but the agent claims he was only informed of the termination after the sale. In this case, the agent’s claim is to be accepted because the time that he claims the agency was terminated occurred closer to the time of the dispute that the time claimed by the principle.
4.      One party appoints another as an agent to buy 1000 computer monitors at the wholesale market price and sell them at a 10% mark-up. In the meantime, the market price of the commodity rises dramatically. The agent claims the purchase took place after the market price changed and provides dates purchase receipts. The principle suspects that the purchase took place before the market price changed and the seller has colluded with the agent to provide false document. Unless the principle can provide proof for his suspicions, the agent’s claim must be accepted, based on this maxim. If the time of an event is in doubt, the decision will be based on the nearest time to the present because it is more certain, and the nearest time to the present in this case is the time the agent claims that the purchased occurred.



5.   CONCLUSION
Istishab etymologically means “always accompany”. Whereas in terminology, Istishab means “everything that has been applied permanently in the past, the principle still applies in the future.” There are two arguments that underlie Istishab, Naqli arguments (Quran and Sunnah) and Aqli arguments.
            Usul fiqh experts have differed on opinion about Istishab proofing when there were no arguments that explain it, such as:
1.      According to the majority of Mutakallimin (theologians) : disagree
2.      According to the majority of Hanafiyah’s scholars, especially Muta’akhirin: agree in establishing of pre-existing law and consider the law still applied in the future.
3.      According to the scholars of Malikiyyah, Syafi'iyah, Hanabilah, Zahiriyyah and Syiah: absolutely agree in establishing the laws that have existed as long as there is no argument that change it.
Fiqh scholars established some rules based on Istishab, such as:
1.      الأصل  البراءة الذمة   - Freedom from liability is the fundamental principle
2.      الأصل بقاء ماكان علي ما كان – The basic rule is that a thing remains in its original
3.      الأصل في الصفات العارضة العدم  - The presumption is that development of legal significance is only of recent occurrence
4.      الأصل اٍضافة الحادث اٍلى أقرب وقته – The presumption is that a development of legal significance is only of recent occurrence.





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